Cervical Cancer
September 01, 2022 | Sara Shoukat Ali

Cervical Cancer

What is cervical Cancer:

The cervix is the lowest part of your uterus (where a child develops during pregnancy). It looks somewhat like a doughnut and interfaces your uterus to the opening of your vagina. It's concealed in tissues made of cells. These healthy cells can develop and change to precancer cells.

What are causes of cervical Cancer:

Cervical cancers are caused by the virus HPV, a sexually transmitted infection. HPV spreads through sexual contact (anal, oral or vaginal) and can prompt cancer. The vast majority will get HPV at some point in their lives and not understand it on the grounds that their bodies fight the infection. However, in the event that your body doesn't fight the infection, it can make the cells of your cervix change to cancerous cells.

Cervical Cancer & HPV

Human papillomavirus(HPV) that affects your genitals is a sexually transmitted infection that gets passed through skin to skin contact.There are more than 100 kinds of HPV. Early detection of these kinds of HPV is key in preventing cervical cancer. Regular screenings with your healthcare provider can assist with distinguishing cell changes before they become cancer. The HPV vaccine can assist with preventing HPV contamination by protecting you against the HPV that causes up to 90% of every single cervical cancer.

Symptoms of cervical Cancer.

Initial stage include:

  •  Watery or bloody vaginal discharge that might be heavy and can have a foul smell.
  • Vaginal bleeding after intercourse, between menstrual periods or after menopause.
  • Menstrual periods might be heavier and last longer than normal.

If cancer has spread to nearby tissues or organs, symptoms may include:

  • Troublesome or painful urination, now and again with blood in urine.
  • Diarrhea, or pain or draining from your rectum when crapping.
  • Fatigue, loss of weight and appetite 
  • A general sensation of sickness.
  • Dull back pain or swelling in your legs.
  • Pelvic/abdominal pain.

Cervical Cancer pain like:

Pain from cervical cancer may not feel like a lot of in the beginning phases of the disease in the event that you feel anything by any means. As cancer advances and spreads to local tissues and organs, you might encounter pain in your pelvis or have issues urinating. Others will feel commonly unwell, tired or lose their appetite.

Stages of cervical Cancer:

Stage I: Cancer is found only in your cervix. It hasn't spread and is little.

Stage II: Cancer has spread beyond your cervix and uterus yet hasn't yet spread to your pelvic wall or your vagina.

Stage III: Cancer has spread to the lower part of your vagina and may have spread to your pelvic wall, ureters (tubes that convey pee) and close by lymph hubs.

Stage IV: Cancer has spread to your bladder, rectum or different pieces of the body like your bones or lungs.

How is cervical cancer diagnosed:

Cervical cancer grows gradually and over many years. Prior to going to cancer, the cells in your cervix go through a great deal of changes. The once normal cells in your cervix begin to seem irregular or abnormal. These abnormal cells might disappear, remain something similar or transform into cancer cells.

  • Pap test: This test detects abnormal or irregular cells in your cervix.
  • HPV test: This test detects the high-risk types of HPV infection that are most likely to cause cervical cancer.
  • Biopsy of cervix.
  • Blood and urine tests.
  • X-rays of your bladder, rectum, bowels and abdominal cavity.

How is cervical cancer treated:

The cervical cancer treatment team consists of gynecologic oncologist (a specialist who has some expertise in cancers of female reproductive organs). Suggested treatment for cervical cancer depends on many variables including the stage of the cancer, your age and general wellbeing.

The treatments for cervical cancer are radiation, chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapy and immunotherapy.


Radiation therapy uses energy beams to kill cancer cells on your cervix

  • External beam radiation (EBRT): Aims powerful radiation at cancer from a machine outside your body.
  • Brachytherapy: Puts the radiation in or simply near cancer.


Chemotherapy (chemo) uses drugs that are injected through your veins or taken by mouth to kill cancer cells. It enters your blood and is effective for killing cells anyplace in your body. There are a few drugs utilized for chemo and they can be joined. Chemo is in many cases given in cycles.

Surgery :

Different kinds of surgery are used to treat cervical cancer.

  • Laser surgery: This surgery uses a laser beam to burn off cancer cells.
  • Cryosurgery: This surgery freezes cancer cells.


Immunotherapy uses medicine to stimulate your immune system to recognize and destroy cancer cells.

Some people use alternative treatments like diet, herbs and other methods to supplement their cancer treatment. Talk to your healthcare provider about alternative methods that claim to relieve cancer symptoms. For more information you can consult with shifa4u online Doctor.

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Sara Shoukat Ali

MS in molecular biology & currently working in Queen Mary College as a lecturer