Chronic Kidney Disease
May 07, 2021 | Farah Jassawalla

Chronic Kidney Disease

Chronic kidney disease, also known as chronic kidney failure, is a common long-term condition in which the kidneys fail to filter excess fluids and waste from the blood.

If the normal functioning of the kidneys is lost, it will lead to the accumulation of waste, electrolytes, and fluids in the body. If left untreated, it may result in persistent kidney failure.

Stages Of Chronic Kidney Disease

Chronic kidney disease is classified into five stages:

      Stage 1 with normal or high GFR (GFR > 90 mL/min)

      Stage 2 with mild CKD (GFR = 60-89 mL/min)

      Stage 3A with moderate CKD (GFR = 45-59 mL/min)

      Stage 3B with moderate CKD (GFR = 30-44 mL/min.

      Stage 4 with severe CKD (GFR = 15-29 mL/min)

      Stage 5 with end stage CKD (GFR <15 mL/min)

Causes of Kidney Disease

Some things that increase the risk for chronic kidney disease are as follows.

Diabetes: It is the most common underlying cause of kidney failure and is also known as diabetic kidney disease. High blood glucose levels damage the blood vessels in your kidneys. This damage leads to organ dysfunction.

Obesity: Kidneys must work harder to remove excess fluids and wastes from an overweight body. Therefore, this extra work increases the risk for chronic kidney failure. Obesity can be prevented in many ways, such as controlling the diet and staying active, etc.

High blood pressure: Narrowing of the blood vessels due to high blood pressure restricts the normal flow of blood to the kidneys. This high pressure on the arteries of the kidneys makes it hard for the nephrons to filter blood properly. In this case, blood pressure should be controlled to less than 80/130.

High cholesterol level: Loss of kidney function can also occur due to the accumulation of fatty deposits in the renal arteries. Plaque build-up in the vessels reduces the flow of blood through the kidneys.

Long-term use of NSAIDS: Prostaglandins dilate blood vessels and keep the kidneys alive by allowing the adequate flow of blood. However, the production of prostaglandins is blocked in the patients taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Polycystic kidney disease: The development of cysts in the kidneys is one of the major risk factors of kidney disease.

Smoking: Nicotine slows the blood flow and causes kidney failure.

Symptoms of Kidney Disease

      Poor appetite

      Blood in urine

      Foamy or bubbly urine

      Cramps in muscles

      Shortness of breath





      Water retention (edema)

      Itchy skin

      Uncontrolled hypertension



      Feeling cold, dizzy, tired

      Puffy face

Treatment of Kidney Disease

Although there is no cure for chronic kidney disease, the progression of symptoms and underlying causes can be slowed down. Some of the ways to treat end-stage kidney failure are mentioned below.

Dialysis: in this process, a machine is used which artificially removes excess fluids and wastes from the blood. There are two types of dialysis:

Haemodialysis, where a machine purifies the blood.

Peritoneal dialysis, where the dialysis solution filled in the abdomen absorbs wastes and fluids.

Kidney transplant: A healthy kidney from a donor is transplanted in place of the defective kidney. Donors can be living or deceased. Many complications can develop after a kidney transplant, such as infection, leakage of urine, clotting of blood, etc.

Treating the underlying cause of Kidney Disease

      Quit smoking

      Maintain high sugar levels and high blood pressure

      Manage diet, consume a low-fat diet

      Stay physically active

For a detailed insight into this condition and treatments, contact Shifa4U online anytime.

Recommended Packages

Farah Jassawalla

Farah Jassawalla is a graduate of the Lahore School of Economics. She is also a writer, and healthcare enthusiast, having closely observed case studies while working with Lahore's thriving general physicians at their clinics.