Sjogren's syndrome, Diagnosis and Treatment
July 09, 2021 | Sara Shoukat Ali

Sjogren's syndrome, Diagnosis and Treatment


Sjogren’s syndrome is second common auto-immune disorder in which immune cells attack the moisture producing glandular tissue that results in dryness of your eyes, mouth and other body parts. It can also cause some other problems such as vaginal dryness, dry skin, chronic cough, fatigue, numbness in arms and legs, thyroid problem, pain in muscles and rheumatoid arthritis. It can also increase the risk of getting another autoimmune disorder such as lymphoma. It is not a serious problem, a person can live normally. But in most cases people become worried about the long lasting disease which needs regular care and treatment. It can affect at any age but people over 40 have high risk of getting it but women are more affected and at high risk than men. Children can also get it but they have low risk than adults.

What signs are observed in Sjogren’s syndrome individuals?

Symptoms may vary from person to person. Some may have one or other may have more than one. Some of common signs are:

·         Dryness of mouth

·         Dryness of eyes a person may feel itch and burn

·         Dryness in nose

·         Blurred vision

·         Change of smell and taste

·         Prolong Fatigue

·         Swollen glands of neck and face

·         Rashes on skin

·         UV light sensitivity

·         Headache

·         Dryness of vagina

·         Heartburn

·         Tingling in legs and arms

·         Trouble in remembering things

·         Trouble in concentration

·         Swelling, pain and stiffness in joint

What are the causes of Sjogren's syndrome?

Doctors are uncertain about its causes. Sjögren condition is thought to result from a blend of hereditary and ecological components; in any case, no relationship between specific gene changes and the improvement of Sjögren disorder have been affirmed. Specialists accept that varieties in numerous qualities influence the danger of creating Sjögren disorder, yet that advancement of the condition might be set off by something in the climate.

What are risk factors of Sjogren’s syndrome?

There are several factors that causes Sjogren’s syndrome that involve:

·         Gender: women are however much multiple times bound to develop Sjögren's disorder than men. This awkwardness might be identified with the impact of sex hormones on a women's immune system.

·         Age: The vast majority who are determined to have Sjögren's disorder are 40 or older however it can influence younger people, including children.

·         Other auto-immune disorders: Almost 50% surprisingly who have Sjogren's additionally have another immune system condition, similar to rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.

How to diagnose the Sjogren’s syndrome?

Sjogren's condition can be hard to analyze on the grounds that the signs and manifestations differ from one individual to another and can be like those brought about by different infections. Results of various prescriptions likewise copy a few signs and manifestations of Sjogren's condition.

Tests can assist rule with excursion different conditions and assist with pinpointing a determination of Sjogren's disorder.

·         Eye tests: Your physician can quantify the dryness of your eyes with a test called a Schirmer tear test. A little piece of channel paper is set under your lower eyelid to quantify your production of tear.

A specialist spend significant time in the treatment of eye problems (ophthalmologist) may likewise analyze the outside of your eyes with an amplifying gadget called a cut light. The individual may put drops in your eye that make it simpler to see harm to your cornea.

·         Blood tests:

o   Your primary care physician may arrange blood tests to check for:

o   Levels of various kinds of blood cells

o   Presence of antibodies normal in Sjogren's disorder

o   Proof of fiery conditions

o   Signs of issues with your liver and kidneys

·         Biopsy: Your Physician may likewise do a lip biopsy to recognize the presence of groups of inflammatory cells, which can show Sjogren's disorder. For this test, a bit of tissue is eliminated from salivary organs in your lip and analyzed under a microscope.

·         Imaging: Certain imaging tests can use to detect the function of salivary glands

o   Sialogram. This exceptional X-ray can identify color that is infused into the salivary organs before your ears. This method shows how much saliva into your mouth.

o   Salivary scintigraphy. This atomic medication test includes the infusion into a vein of a radioactive isotope, which is followed longer than an hour to perceive how rapidly it shows up in the entirety of your salivary glands.


How to treat the Sjogren’s Syndrome?

Treatment for Sjogren's condition relies upon the pieces of the body influenced. Numerous individuals deal with the dry eye and dry mouth of Sjogren's condition by utilizing over-the-counter eyedrops and tasting water all the more every now and again. However, a few group need physician endorsed drugs, or even surgeries.

·         Reduction eye irritation; Medicine eyedrops, for example, cyclosporine (Restasis) or lifitegrast (Xiidra) might be suggested by your eye specialist on the off chance that you have moderate to serious dry eyes.

·         Increase production of saliva; Medications like pilocarpine (Salagen) and cevimeline (Evoxac) can build the creation of salivation, and now and again tears. Incidental effects can incorporate perspiring, stomach torment, flushing and increase the urination.

·         Treat system wide manifestations; Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil), a medication intended to treat intestinal sickness, is frequently useful in treating Sjogren's disorder. Medications that smother the invulnerable framework, like methotrexate (Trexall), additionally may be endorsed.

·         Address explicit complexities; On the off chance that you foster joint pain side effects, you may profit with nonsteroidal calming drugs (NSAIDs) or other joint pain meds. Yeast contaminations in the mouth ought to be treated with antifungal drugs.


Sara Shoukat Ali

MS in molecular biology & currently working in Queen Mary College as a lecturer